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Freight from the USA

Palletizing in Sea freightChargeable (Gross) Volume | Guidelines | Sipping barrels | Shipping Cargo in Crates

Palletizing and crating

International LCL freight is the cost-effective solution for shipping relatively large cargo from the USA overseas. If you ship freight, then your shipping items will most likely be palletized regardless of transportation mode. Palletizing is mandatory in cargo transportation. Shippers can either palletize their cargo themselves or request a freight terminal to palletize everything at the time of delivery. We highly recommend reading this web page if you are new to international shipping.

On the one hand, palletizing your shipping items is the only way to ship them without damage and loss. On the other hand, if a freight terminal palletizes your shipping items, it adds a palletizing fee and increases the chargeable volume of your cargo. Read this page to avoid confusion when palletizing your freight for international shipping from the USA.

Shipping loose boxes

If you ship a few items weighing less than 75 lbs, they may be shipped loose. We recommend using heavy-duty cardboard shipping boxes if you ship goods in boxes. Shipping loose boxes from the USA overseas has advantages and disadvantages.

international shipping of boxes in LCL sea freight

ADVANTAGE: Unless shipping units weigh less than 75 lbs and are less than 72", shipping LCL such items loose should not incur additional freight costs in international transportation from the U.S.That is because the total sea freight cost will be calculated by combining the volumes of separate shipping units.
DISADVANTAGE: Shipping several items separately is not a reliable way to deliver goods from the U.S. abroad.

If you ship items loose, every shipping box or smaller shipping unit will be handled by hand during international transportation. Therefore, there is no guarantee that your shipping goods will be appropriately handled. Cargo can be easily damaged. Loose shipping items can be separated in warehouses or the sea freight container. Such shipments can be partially lost or misrouted during the delivery from the USA overseas. Loose shipping items can be easily stolen.



Shipping palletized cargo

The dimensions of the standard U.S. pallet used in international cargo transportation from the USA are 48" x 40" x 6" (or 1.2m x 1.0m x 0.15m). Cargo is stacked on pallets and shrink-wrapped by a plastic film called "pallets" or "skids."

Even though pallets of standard sizes are most commonly used in international cargo transportation, there are various pallets of other sizes and forms. Pallets have to be strong enough to hold shipping goods, accessible for forkliftable, and fit into 40-foot sea freight containers. Shipping items exceeding 72" are considered oversized and subject to surcharges.

If you request an ocean freight carrier's terminal (CFS) to palletize your shipping boxes or smaller shipping units, the cargo will be appropriately stacked by the CFS on certified ISPM15 pallets and shrink-wrapped. Each pallet will carry as many shipping items as it can combine.

If you palletize your cargo on your own, then follow these rules:

  • It is not recommended to exceed the height of the skid more than 60" (1.52m). The height of the skids depends on the strength, weight, and size of the shipping boxes.
  • The entire skid should be shrink-wrapped and secured by a plastic film.
  • Bases of shipping pallets should be accessible for pallet jacks with a minimum clearance of 3.5".
  • All skids prepared for international transportation from the USA must fit into a 40' multimodal sea freight container.

When palletizing cargo for shipping from the U.S. overseas, always pay attention to wood packing restrictions that apply in international cargo transportation.

international shipping of pallets in ocean freight

ADVANTAGES: There are a lot of benefits to shipping palletized and shrink-wrapped cargo. Compared with no palletized cargo, palletized cargo has a much higher probability of reaching destinations without damage or loss. Forklifts will safely handle palletized cargo. Being palletized, all shipping boxes are securely kept together. So, a partial loss probability is insignificantly small. Palletized ocean freight is much better protected from potential theft on any stage of transportation from the USA to the destination country.

Note that if you self-deliver loose cardboard shipping boxes to an ocean freight carrier's terminal (CFS), then the CFS should properly palletize and shrink-wrap your shipping boxes for international transportation from the USA for the fee of $35-75 per pallet, including the cost of certified pallet provided by CFS. Use the opportunity. Do not palletize shipping boxes by yourself. Deliver light shipping boxes to CFS and leave the palletizing to professionals. Besides that, loose shipping boxes are much easier to handle; you transfer responsibilities on ISPM 15 compliance to the CFS. Then, your shipping boxes should not face any problems related to ISPM 15 when shipping from the USA overseas.

As a U.S. Freight Forwarder, AMID Logistics highly recommends palletizing loose shipping boxes for international transportation from the U.S.

DISADVANTAGES: Additional charges that occur due to palletizing of shipping boxes and other kinds of smaller shipping items, which relate to:

  1. Cost of the pallet(s) and labor;
  2. Increasing the chargeable volume of palletized cargo.
  3. The palletizing of too many shipping boxes may not be available at certain CFSs. If you ship from the USA too many boxes (say 50+), you should consider palletizing your cargo before the delivery to CFS.


Estimation of chargeable (gross) volume after cargo palletization

To avoid confusion when reading invoices for international transportation of palletized cargo, you should clearly understand that:
1. Ocean freight carrier's terminal (CFS) charges a fee to palletize and shrink-wrap loose shipping items. Depending on CFS, the fee varies from $35 to $75 per pallet. The fee includes the cost of a certified pallet that complies with ISPM15.
2. CFS may charge an hourly labor fee if you ship many loose items. Please remember that palletizing many shipping boxes may not be available at certain CFSs. If you ship from the USA too many boxes (say 30-50+), you may need to self-palletize your cargo before or at the time of the delivery to CFS. 
A PALLETIZING FEE IS NOT INCLUDED IN QUOTES OBTAINED IN OUR ONLINE FREIGHT CALCULATOR. The fee will be determined upon completing palletizing. It will be added to the carrier's freight invoice, billed to us, and added to your final invoice. Note that we never mark up the fee. You will see it in the ocean freight surcharges breakdown in your rated carrier's bill of lading.
3. PALLETIZING INCREASES CHARGEABLE VOLUME. Regardless of the sizes of your shipping boxes, the overall chargeable (gross) volume will always be calculated based on the longest, widest, and highest dimensions of your skid. See the pictures to see how it works:
palletizing in LCL international shipping

For example, a skid with dimensions 40"x48"x60" equals shipping of 1.89 gross cubic meters (or 67 gross cubic feet).

People ask: How much does it cost to palletize my boxes? How can I estimate it?

The answer is: A CFS should properly palletize and shrink-wrap your shipping boxes for $35-75 per pallet. The fee depends on a CFS. The price includes the cost of a certified pallet provided by CFS. Remember that if you palletize many shipping boxes, the CFS may charge you for the labor per hour.

The size of the standard U.S. pallet itself is 40x48x6 inches. It is recommended not to exceed the height of skids by more than 60 inches. Otherwise, it may become unstable. Then, a single pallet is unlikely to exceed two cubic meters.
Calculate the total volume of your shipping items in our online freight calculator to estimate the number of pallets needed in your international shipping. Then, add 15-35% to the volume and divide it by 2 cubic meters. However, this is a very rough estimation. The actual sizes of pallets will depend on the sizes and shapes of your shipping items. To decrease the "dead" volume, we'd recommend shipping boxes of the same size. Then, they should fit into pallets evenly.

For example, you ship 20 Walmart LARGE boxes sizes 22" x18" x18" and 10 Walmart MEDIUM boxes sizes 17" x16" x16". Using our online freight calculator, you've calculated the total volume of shipping cargo at 3.15 Cubic Meters.

 Calculate chargeable volume in sea freight

Then, after the palletizing, the rough estimation is 3.15 CBM x 1.25 = 3.94 CBM.

3.94 CBM : 2 CBM per pallet ~ 2 pallets. I.e., most likely, your cargo should fit into two pallets.

Please understand that no one can predict the number and sizes of your pallets until palletizing is completed. The palletizing charges will be included in the ocean carrier's rated bill of lading's freight surcharges.

IMPORTANT! Please keep in mind that if you requested to palletize your cargo at CFS, but at the time of delivery to CFS, a CFS's cargo recipient says that they are not aware of the palletizing, please do not worry. Most likely, the employee has not yet received a work order to palletize your cargo.

Do not argue. Just submit your shipping boxes loose. Ensure that the cargo recipient wrote the number of boxes submitted on the copy of your dock receipt, dated, and signed it. Keep the copy as proof of your cargo delivery.

Upon receipt of a warehouse receipt from the CFS, we'll reconfirm the palletizing work order. Your goods will be palletized appropriately, and we will inform you about that in our update email.


Guidelines on palletizing in shipping freight LCL

It's a good idea to consider how your shipping boxes will fit into a skid(s) before purchasing shipping boxes.

Your boxes, most likely, will be stacked on a U.S. standard pallet(s) with a base of 40"x48" (~1.00 x 1.20 in meters). If possible, always purchase boxes of the same size and so many boxes that they fill the rows of boxes on the pallet(s).

If you do not (or cannot) follow this rule, then it may result in a sharp increase in the "dead volume" of your internationally shipping goods. Below are pictures that show how the chargeable volume almost doubled, comparable to the "net" volume of shipping boxes, due to the improper set of boxes chosen for shipping from the USA. The sizes of shipping boxes are different:

Ship boxes from the USA abroad


Below are shipping boxes of the same size, but they do not fill the second row:

Shipping boxes from the USA overseas


Ocean freight terminals do their best to make skids as compact as possible. Below is a sampling of how mixed sizes of boxes and bins can be palettized by decreasing the "dead volume" to the minimum:

Send boxes from the USA abroad

In the pictures below, you can see how perfectly shipping boxes fit into skids if you follow the rule above. Professional exporters know that, and the "dead volume" for such shipmates is minimized and virtually does not impact the cost of international cargo transportation:

Deliver boxes from the USA abroad

Here are the helpful hints if you self-palletize your cargo and deliver to a CFS entire skid(s):

Sipping barrels. Not recommended.

Occasionally, people want to ship goods in barrels. For some reason, shipping barrels are commonly used in shipping from the USA to the Caribbean and Latin America.

Yes, you can also ship goods overseas in barrels. However, we highly recommend packing your goods in heavy-duty cardboard boxes for shipping overseas. You can purchase heavy-duty cardboard boxes at Walmart, Home Depot, etc., or order online. It costs about the same as regular cardboard shipping boxes.

Please keep in mind that besides the difficulties of handling heavy barrels, the barrels will be palletized and shrink-wrapped for international shipping. Then, a dead volume will occur due to palletizing, especially if you send several barrels that are not a multiple of four to fit in a U.S. standard pallet with the base 40 "X48".

shipping barrels


Shipping goods from the USA in crates

Crating cargo for international transportation from the USA overseas can be quite expensive. However, in certain circumstances, the crating of shipping goods is necessary.

Shippung International LCL. Smaller Crate.

Crating cargo would be necessary if you ship valuable or fragile goods such as assembled furniture, large but fragile items, or certain irregular and fragile items requiring extra protection in their transportation from the USA overseas. Regular or custom-made solid crates can be purchased from packing companies or ordered online.

You may also hire a professional packing company to crate your shipping goods to international shipping from the U.S. As a U.S. Freight Forwarder, we'd suggest you ask a suck packing company if they are familiar with regulations in international cargo transportation, particularly with wood packing restrictions.

Note that crates built for shipping from the USA LCL, like pallets, must be forkliftable and fit into 40' multimodal sea freight containers.

Forklift in sea freight

Suppose a custom-made crate exceeds 48" in width. In that case, it will most likely not be accessible by a regular forklift and unsuitable for international cargo transportation from the U.S. overseas LCL.

International Shipping. Custom built crate.


Mixing different types of shipping units

Depending on shipping, it is sometimes a good idea to ship freight in different shipping units. That means you can palletize and shrink-wrap smaller shipping boxes, crate most valuable or fragile items, and leave oversized items loose. This approach can give you peace of mind about the safety of your shipped goods and save gross chargeable volume in your international shipping from the USA.

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